Truth that matters

Feast of Christ the King
Christ Church Cathedral, Grafton
21 November 2021

[ video ]

The truth that matters

Our Gospel today has the dramatic scene where Pilate and Jesus engage in a private conversation inside the private residence of the Procurator, and away from prying ears.

More about that in a moment.

This passage was chosen for the feast of Christ the King this year as it teases out what Jesus being some kind of a king might actually mean in the real world of power and privilege.

As the storyteller creates this fictional scene, we are invited to imagine the representative of imperial Rome engaging with a peasant preacher from Nazareth about the meaning of life. The man who seems to have all the power, actually has no power at all. The man who seems powerless and is soon to be executed, holds all the cards.

It is a wonderful piece of ironic fiction.

Powerful imperial representatives do not spend time in conversation with people who have no status and pose no threat their own privilege. The messy details of executions and state violence against the population are left in the hands of lower ranks, as we also see in other parts of this story.

Such a scene never happened, but we have learned not to mortgage truth to historicity. 

We are not reading a transcript of the trial, but listening to John’s narrative which seeks to explain what these events mean. Not what happened, but what it all means that when God came among us in human form the response from human power systems was lethal violence? In what sense is the cross that point in time where sacred love meets human power in all its ugliness?

And who wins—in the end?

As our selection ends, we hear Jesus saying to Pilate, “Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to me.”

What we strangely do not hear in the excerpt chosen for today is Pilate’s response in the very next sentence: “What is truth?”

As we come to the end of another year of mission and ministry, I find myself asking once more: what have we learned about Jesus? What is the deep truth about Jesus, ourselves and our community to which we have been exposed week after week in this second year of the COVID pandemic?

To paraphrase another voice from the Johannine community:

“what (have) we heard, what (have) we seen with our eyes, what (have) we looked at and touched with our hands, concerning the word of life” (1 John 1:1) this past year, and indeed these past four years?

Upwards, inwards and outwards

It may be helpful this morning to think about this deep truth from three angles: upwards, inwards and outwards

Upwards

I use this spatial metaphor with some hesitancy, but truth to tell we have very few human words to describe our sense of the deep reality which pervades yet exceeds everything we experience, observe and imagine. Rather than speaking about looking upwards for God, we might just as well speak of delving deep within ourselves or far below the surface in search the depth dimension to reality.

Whatever form of words you find most helpful, the point is that the great truth at the heart of our identity and our mission is the reality of God. The sacred Other. The Holy beyond all that is familiar. The Name beyond all names. The Truth beyond all creeds. The Still-Point we can so easily overlook in our busy schedules.

Christ Church has been in the heart of Grafton since 1842, but the deep truth at the heart of Christ Church is an awareness that it is not all about us.

We have learned to call that ‘something more’ “God,” and we have come to appreciate Jesus as Emmanuel, “God with us.” 

If we ever lose sight of that deep truth we lose our reason for being here.

As a Cathedral community we are a community that points to something more, something deeper, some beyond.

Inwards

Just as “upwards” may not be the best term to describe our sense of the Sacred beyond us, so we may need a better term than “inwards” to identify another key dimension of truth: the quality of our life together as a community of faith.

The dynamics of our life together as a community of local people also matter.

They matter first of all because we need to walk the talk. 

How we live—individually as collectively—matters. 

How does our sense of God impact the way we live? Is it reflected in the way we do business? Are we a safe community?

I came across one very down-to-earth way to express this some years ago, and I have always found it a powerful question: If people went through our garbage bins would they find any evidence that we are people of faith, or would our trash look just the same as everyone else’s?

So take care of each other and the live the truth we have come to know.

Be there for each other, but also remain open to the new people who wish to join us. 

As I was preparing this sermon I came across a message left on our website in January this year. It was sent by someone who had started to attend the Cathedral and was so grateful to find a community which was welcoming, friendly and safe.

Outwards

That message left on the web page is a reminder that we must also be people who look beyond our own comfort zones and past the people we already know so well.

We have a mission to the wider community and they look to the Cathedral for practical advice grounded in spiritual wisdom.

This is all about compassion.

We claim no monopoly on truth, holiness, virtue or wisdom. But we are committed to the common good, and we seek the welfare of the towns and villages in this valley.

When the prophet Jeremiah was writing to the Jewish exiles in Babylon he offered them this advice, which also good advice for us:

Build houses and live in them; plant gardens and eat what they produce. Take wives and have sons and daughters; take wives for your sons, and give your daughters in marriage, that they may bear sons and daughters; multiply there, and do not decrease. But seek the welfare of the city where I have sent you into exile, and pray to the LORD on its behalf, for in its welfare you will find your welfare. [Jeremiah 29:5–7]

We are not preppers, forming a sect while we wait for the end of the world. We are not selling fire insurance for the next life. We are not waiting to be beamed up to a better world away from here.

We are grateful for this world, which is the tangible expression of God’s love for us. We promote harmony and goodwill among our communities. And we seek always to act as people of compassion.

In conclusion

As I step aside from my role as Dean of Grafton, I am grateful for the privilege of these past four years.

I am confident that we can keep looking beyond the obvious to the deeper reality which really matters, persist in building an authentic faith community centred on Jesus, and continue to be engaged compassionately with our wider community.

Like our Cathedral building, as members of this Cathedral community each of us also points people to deeper reality, we invite them into community centred around Christ, and we respond their needs with compassion and care.

As we do that, then Christ will indeed be the king and his prayer will come true: “Your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as in heaven …”

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Because of them

Festival of All Saints & All Souls
Christ Church Cathedral, Grafton
31 October 2021

[ video ]

Because of them

Today we pause to acknowledge all of those who have gone before us in the faith.

Some of them are people from long ago.

Many of them are people from far away.

Others are people we have known; who we remember with love and appreciation.

It is because of them that we are who we are.

It is because of them that the faith has been passed across 2,000 years.

It is because of them that the faith is expressed in every human language, within every culture and across all parts of this world.

Had they been unfaithful, the faith would not have survived.

Had they forgotten the story of Jesus, it would no longer be told among us.

Had they not travelled far and wide, the faith would not be found in every part of the world.

Had they not been people of courage, the flame of faith may well have been extinguished.

Had they lost hope, how would we ever had heard the good news?

We walk in their footsteps, but also need to find our own path.

We carry the candle of faith in a very different world.

Our challenge is not so much to imitate them as to replicate them.

It is not that we do exactly what they did, but that we seek to achieve the same goal.

The mission remains the same, but the operation may be rather different.

A new legacy for those who come after us

In our own time we are also creating a legacy for those who will come after us. In time they will look back at these times in the life of the church, and they may wonder why we were so concerned about this issue or that, yet remained oblivious to something else which they find central to their concerns.

Just as we need not imitate those who went before us, so we cannot presume to imagine that those who come after us will keep doing things the way we do them now. And that is OK.

Our task is to be faithful here and now; encouraged by the past and open to the future.

Since 1842 Anglicans have been present in Grafton, seeking to serve God and their community.

At first our faith community had a simple timber chapel, just across the street and beside the Deanery. Forty years later work was underway to build this Cathedral, which was a remarkable project in a town of just 1,500 people.

Once upon a time this Cathedral was packed most Sundays and we had several services a day. Those days have long passed and we are still trying to find the best way to be Jesus people in this community at time when being “at church” does not matter to most of our family and friends.

In a way, the Cathedral itself is a parable, hinting at the challenge before us. We have much from the past for which we are grateful, but the way forward is not so easy to discern.

The heart of the matter

We cannot imagine what the church will be like in the years to come, but the heart of our faith and our mission remains the same even when expressed in different ways at different times:

Intentional – We are people who seek to follow Jesus with our eyes wide open. We are not drifting along with church life because it is the accepted thing that “everyone around here” does. No, we make a conscious choice to pay attention to faith, to seek God and to take the spiritual quest seriously.

Centred on Jesus – There are many ways to respond to God’s call on our lives. We accept and affirm the faithfulness of people in other spiritual traditions who are also intentional about their desire to say YES to God, however they understand that sacred reality. We especially acknowledge the faithfulness of Jews and Muslims, with whom we share so much yet differ so profoundly over just a few points. Yet for us, it is all about Jesus. For us, Jesus is the way that leads to God, and for us Jesus is God among us in human form. Emmanuel 

Compassion – As we seek to follow Jesus, the hallmark will be compassion. It matters little whether we are right or wrong, if we fail to be compassionate. One classic text which captures this truth so well is found in 1 Corinthians, the great hymn to love. 

And if I have prophetic powers, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing. [1 Cor 13:2]

That will be as true in the future as it is now, and ever has been in the past. If we fail to be people of compassion then we have nothing to offer the world.

Justice – Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for justice. (Matt 5:6). Or as the great Covenant Code we call the book of Deuteronomy expresses it: Justice, and only justice, you shall pursue, so that you may live and occupy the land that the LORD your God is giving you. [Deut 16:20] The church has a prophetic role in society, whether it is welcomed or rejected. It is the work of God to defend the weak and speak for those without power. Those with power hate us doing that; mostly because in their heart of hearts they know we are right and they are on the wrong side of history.

Hope – we are not selling fire insurance for the next life, but we are affirming that in the end—as at the beginning— it is all about love. The love that brought our universe into existence will ensure that—in the end—what is right does prevail, life defeats death, the mighty are cast down from their seats, the hungry are fed, and the rich are indeed sent away empty. God turns everything upside down, and that is why we are people of hope even when it seems everything is so dark.

This is what we have learned from those who went before us.

This is the truth we seek to live in our everyday lives.

And this is the legacy we leave for those who will come after us.

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What did the blind men see?

Christ Church Cathedral Grafton
Pentecost 22B
24 October 2021

Armenian ms. Glajor Gospels ca. 1301-1325

[ video ]

Not seeing the forest for the trees

Sometimes we are so captivated by the details in front of us that we do not notice the large reality of which that item is but one part.

In everyday speech we say that someone cannot see the forest for the trees.

They are so concerned about the details that they do not see the big picture.

In today’s readings, the “tree” is the story of Jesus healing a blind beggar named Bartimaeus at Jericho.

I suspect many sermons will be preached today about this otherwise unknown minor character in the Gospels. But in talking about this one character in the story that Mark is telling, they may perhaps miss the forest which Mark has been carefully tending in the background.

Standing back from the tree to see the forest

We are now almost at the end of a year spent listening to the way Mark tells the Jesus story. 

What have we learned?

The Gospel according to Mark was the first of those 4 gospels included in the New Testament to be written. He seems to have done something which no one else had tried before, and as best we can tell he was doing this during the last quarter of the first century after the Romans had suppressed the Jewish revolt and destroyed Jerusalem along with its fabled temple.

Mark provided the basic storyline for Matthew and Luke, when they each prepared their own versions of the Jesus story sometime later. But Mark is a very different story from theirs. It has no birth legends and no resurrection stories; just an empty tomb and some frightened women.

One way of reading Mark is to see him addressing two major questions:

  • Who was Jesus?
  • How do we follow him?

During the first half of his document, Mark develops the idea that Jesus is like some supercharged combination of both Moses and Elijah. Jesus, for Mark, unites the covenant legacy of Moses with the prophetic power of Elijah, and then more so. He is something else again.

The second half of the Gospel according to Mark has two very clear sections. In the final section (chs 11–16), we are in Jerusalem and Jesus is about to be crucified. The conflict between Jesus and the temple authorities is reaching its climax.

But before we get to Jerusalem, Mark has an extended section that teases out what it means to be a disciple of Jesus: 8:22 to 10:52.

Two blind men see, while 12 sighted men fumble

That section begins and ends with Jesus healing a blind man. And in between times Jesus seems to be dealing with a bunch of disciples who cannot see even though their eyes appear to be working!

This middle section of Mark opens with a strange scene where Jesus seems to have trouble healing a blind man who is brought to him at Bethsaida. You may remember the story. 

Jesus normally heals people with just a word, rarely even a prayer. But in this case Jesus makes a paste by mixing some dirt with own spit and placing it on the man’s eyes.

It partly works.

When asked, “Can you see anything?” (itself a strange question for Jesus to ask!), the man replies, “I can see people, but they look like trees, walking.”

This time Jesus looks intently at the man and lays his hands on the guy for a second time.

Now the man’s sight was fully restored, he could see clearly; and Jesus sent him home. We are never told his name.

During the rest of chapter 8 and through chapters 9 and 10, the disciples seem to be a lot like that man!

They can see, but nothing is clear to them.

Over and again Mark collects stories where Jesus talks about the nature—and the cost—of discipleship. And the Twelve simply do not get it. Not ever.

Mark even has Jesus tell them no less than 3 times in two and half chapters that he is going to Jerusalem, he will be killed there by the authorities, but that after three days he will rise again.

Then they reach Jericho and Jesus encounters another blind man.

Bartimaeus is excited to hear that Jesus is passing by, and when Jesus asks what Bartimaeus wants from him, he is very clear: “I want to see again!”

No more mud paste this time, as Jesus assures him that he will regain his sight because his own faith has made him well.

But notice what happens next:

Immediately he regained his sight and followed him on the way. (Mark 10:52)

Can we see the forest?

Bartimaeus does not go home, but walks the way of Jesus, the Way of the Cross.

Finally, Jesus has a disciple who sees clearly and is willing to follow him. 

We never hear of Bartimaeus again, but he is the archetype of discipleship.

He does not ask to keep his wealth. He does not seek a powerful role in the kingdom of God. He does not ask Jesus to wait while he buries his father or arranges his business affairs. He does not jostle for recognition and status. He does not criticise those who believe differently. He simply follows Jesus in the Way. 

He sees what he has to do. And he does it.

That is the forest: to be a disciple, someone who walks the Way of Jesus.

All that we have experienced and learned during this past year is for this one simple purpose: Can we now see more clearly that the one thing which matters is whether we choose to walk the Way of Jesus?

As we come to the Table of Jesus in a few minutes we are saying, “Yes, I will walk the way of Jesus.”

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Awesome discipleship

Pentecost 21B
Christ Church Cathedral Grafton
17 October 2021

[ video ]

This morning we were to baptise two children, but sadly COVID restrictions of one kind or another have meant that both families had to postpone the Baptisms to a later date.

But what a great set of readings we have for a baptism, and especially the Gospel reading.

O LORD my God, how great you are!

The OT book of Job is one of the great spiritual classics of the world. 

That does mean it is an easy book to read. Far from it! This is a book which wrestles with the existential question of why bad things happen to good people

At 12,674 words—all of them in Hebrew—this is a complex discussion as the lead character (Job) is beset by a series of disasters which take away his health, his family and his wealth.

To make things worse, Job has a set of three very religious friends who turn up to comfort him. However, their idea of comforting Job is to lecture him about his faults, which must surely be the explanation for these disasters. They are more interested in defending God than in helping their friend. In other words, they are protecting their own belief systems rather than offering compassionate solidarity to Job.

They take turns to lecture Job, and he defends himself. Finally, the three older friends are silenced and a younger associate takes it upon himself to show Job and his three friends where they all have it wrong.

By this stage we have reached chapter 37 of Job!

Finally, in today’s reading, God shows up and begins to put everyone in their place. That will take another four and a half chapters, before Job gets his health, family and wealth restored.

That happy ending, which we have in our readings next week, is the least satisfying part of the whole discussion in Job. But we need not worry about it today. And perhaps not ever.

In the snippet of Job which we read this morning, we are reminded of the awesome nature of the universe in which we live and of which we are a part:

“Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? 
Tell me, if you have understanding. 
Who determined its measurements—surely you know! 
Or who stretched the line upon it? 
On what were its bases sunk, 
or who laid its cornerstone 
when the morning stars sang together 
and all the heavenly beings shouted for joy?

In biblical terms, Job is confronted with the awesome glory of God. In our terms, we face the awesome scale, age and complexity of the cosmos. We are blown away by the immensity of Life, as well as our own vulnerability and insignificance.

More than Melchizedek

Our second reading today is from the most Jewish of all the documents in the New Testament: the Letter to the Hebrews.

In this book Jesus is imagined as a Jewish priest, which of course he was not. This book is a reminder that truth should not be mortgaged to historicity.

The spiritual truth of the Bible does not depend on the historicity of Job or the priestly lineage of Jesus, but on the underlying themes of faith and doubt, courage and fear, failure and forgiveness, which run throughout the Scriptures.

For the author of this anonymous letter to Jewish believers, Jesus was like a particular mysterious character, Melchizedek (King of Righteousness) who appears at a couple of places in the Old Testament. He also appears in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls much closer to the time of Jesus, which probably explains why this figure is mentioned in Hebrews. But that is a topic for another day! [ Melchizedek texts ]

Note, however, that as this author sketches out what Jesus was like, he describes Jesus in very human terms:

In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to the one who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission.

So, alongside the awesome otherness of God proclaimed in Job, we have the ordinary humanity of Jesus as the beloved Son, Emmanuel, God-with-us, God-as-one-of-us.

The mysterious and awesome Other in whose shadow we shrink from view, is also the familiar Jesus who comes alongside us, as one of us, beset by our challenges, and crying out to God for rescue.

Although he was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered; and having been made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him,

Drink from the cup of Christ

How do we respond to this One who comes among us and invites us to walk his way, to follow his path?

The suggested answer is in the second half of Mark 8, which is another classic; this time a classic of discipleship.

Notice how James and John, the sons of Zebedee, approach Jesus for a special favour: We want the best seats in the kingdom!

And notice Jesus’ reply to them:

“You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?” They replied, “We are able.” Then Jesus said to them, “The cup that I drink you will drink; and with the baptism with which I am baptized, you will be baptized; but to sit at my right hand or at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared.”

Are you able to drink the cup that drink?

Are you able to be baptised with the baptism that I am going to undergo?

Those are awesome questions, and they echo across 2,000 years to us here in the Cathedral this morning.

Are we up to “this Jesus thing”? As individuals? As a Cathedral community?

A couple of years ago when I tried to describe the mission of the Cathedral here in Grafton for the website, I expressed it this way:

a generous faith community
centred on Jesus
seeking wisdom for life
acting with compassion
in the heart of Grafton
since 1842

Is that the cup we are prepared to drink?

Is that a path we are prepared to walk?

Is that a baptism through which we are willing to pass?

In case we are wondering what that looks like in real life, Jesus helpfully continues:

“… whoever wishes to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wishes to be first among you must be slave of all. For the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many.”

While our worship offers us a glimpse of the awesome God, may we never lose sight of the radical humility of the Holy One who comes among us and offers us the privilege of drinking from the same cup that he has also chosen to accept. 

We are not just asked to believe things about Jesus.

The call to discipleship goes far deeper than that!

Rather, we are asked to walk the way of Jesus in compassionate humility for the sake of others. 

We are called to be Jesus.

For the sake of the world. 

For the sake of our local community. 

For the sake of our loved ones.

For our own sake.

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Creation matters

Christ Church Cathedral Grafton
Creation Time 1: Earth
5 September 2021

[ video ]

Season of Creation

What were you doing in 1989?

On 1 September that year, Ecumenical Patriarch Dimitrios I proclaimed that date as a day of special prayers for creation by members of the Orthodox family of churches throughout the world.

In the 32 years which have passed since that proclamation, the idea has spread and developed further.

The World Council of Churches embraced the idea but extended the Season of Creation through to the feast for St Francis of Assisi on 4 October. 

In his 2015 encyclical—Laudato Si’ (“Praise be to you, my Lord”)—Pope Francis invoked the words of the famous Canticle of the Sun composed by Francis of Assisi:

Praise be to you, my Lord, through our Sister, Mother Earth,
who sustains and governs us,
and who produces various fruit with coloured flowers and herbs.

The encyclical is well worth a careful read, but at more than 40,000 words is far too lengthy and complex to read during a church service. I draw your attention to the link in these sermon notes, and encourage you to reflect on the wisdom of Francis; both the saint and the Pope.

God saw what happened and it was good

Our first reading this morning was the opening words of the Bible: Genesis chapter one. We only read as far as verse 25 because we shall read the following verses next Sunday when we reflect on humanity as part of creation.

The opening lines of the ancient Hebrew Scriptures imagine the creation of the universe as a process spread over a week.

It is a carefully crafted text, with actions on days 1-2-3 paralleled by developments on days 4-5-6. As is well known, on the seventh day (Shabbat), there is no more creating to be done and God rests.

We are invited to share that sacred rest, and indeed that may be the ultimate point of the opening chapter.

We tend to read it as an account of God making everything, but in reality it is a poetic invitation to join God in observing Shabbat. The point of creation is not activity (staying busy), but resting mindfully.

Along the way we see the harmony of creation and its intrinsic goodness. At the end of the each of the six days of creative activity, other than day 2 when God simply creates the sky, we read: “And God saw that it was good …”

We miss the point of this classic spiritual text if we mistake it for a description of how the world was made. This “story,” as it is called in Genesis 2:4a, is about who made everything (i.e., where does the universe come from) and the character of the universe (it is good) and the point of it all (resting awe).

Creation matters to God

In the ancient world and even in some forms of Christianity today, there is an idea that the physical world is somehow inferior to the physical world, and that this life does not matter as much as the life to come.

Our biblical texts today make it clear that such ideas are mistaken.

Rather than being a distraction from God’s core business, the universe is a sacrament of divine presence, power and truth.

The universe exists because God wished it to be so and it derives from God’s inner love seeking self-expression.

To love nature and care for creation is to worship God.

Indeed, for Christians, God not only created the world but became part of the world in the person of Jesus.

As theologian Sally McFague has reminded us, we can (she would say “must”) think of the world as God’s body.

As Christians we are not really into abstract ideas and disembodied spirits. Our metaphor for afterlife is “resurrection of the body” and not—as many Christians mistakenly think—immortality of the soul. That idea is never found in the Bible, but comes from Greek philosophy.

Logos Hymn

Let’s conclude this brief reflection for the first Sunday in Creation Time with the soaring theology of John chapter one.

This hymn of the Logos is clearly a riff on the creation poem of Genesis.

In the beginning was the Word,
and the Word was with God,
and the Word was God.
He was in the beginning with God.
All things came into being through him,
and without him not one thing came into being.
What has come into being in him was life,
and the life was the light of all people.
The light shines in the darkness,
and the darkness did not overcome it. [John 1:1–5]

This Logos that brought the universe into being is also at work in us; if we accept his activity within us:

The true light, which enlightens everyone,
was coming into the world.
He was in the world,
and the world came into being through him;
yet the world did not know him.
He came to what was his own,
and his own people did not accept him. [John 1:9–11]

And note especially the stunning final stanza of the Logos Hymn:

And the Word became flesh and lived among us,
and we have seen his glory,
the glory as of a father’s only son,
full of grace and truth. [John 1:14]

The Word became flesh and pitched his tent with us …

There is no essential divide between matter and the spirit.

We care about the world—and we care for our Planet Earth—because they are not only gifts from God, but also because these are ways for us to express our love for God.

I finish with these words from St Francis:

Be praised, my Lord, through all your creatures, 
especially through my lord Brother Sun, 
who brings the day; and you give light through him. 
And he is beautiful and radiant in all his splendour! 
Of you, Most High, he bears the likeness.

Praised be You, my Lord, through Sister Moon and the stars, 
in heaven you formed them clear and precious and beautiful.

Praised be You, my Lord, through Brother Wind, 
and through the air, cloudy and serene, 
and every kind of weather through which 
You give sustenance to Your creatures.

Praised be You, my Lord, through Sister Water,
which is very useful and humble and precious and chaste.

Praised be You, my Lord, through Brother Fire, 
through whom you light the night and he is beautiful 
and playful and robust and strong.

Praised be You, my Lord, through Sister Mother Earth, 
who sustains us and governs us and who produces 
varied fruits with coloured flowers and herbs.

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Why pray

Christ Church Cathedral, Grafton
Pentecost 13B
22 August 2021

[ video ]

This seems like a good day to talk about prayer …

Prayer is always an important topic:

  • relates to PRAXIS and not THEORY
  • touches on how faith is done outside the walls of the Cathedral
  • but also concerns the essential spiritual DNA of the Cathedral

We are a place of prayer:

  • our bricks call people to imagine there is more to life than the everyday
  • we point to eternity
  • we invite people to connect

Our readings today all refer to prayer:

  • Dedication of the temple in Jerusalem
  • Psalm 84
  • Paul urges his readers to pray for him
  • Jesus attends synagogue in Capernaum

But this is also a day when churches are calling on the nation to pray

  • we might wonder why now and not much sooner than now
  • but today is the chosen date
  • should we join in?
  • will it make any difference?

If prayer worked

So, I start by asking, Does prayer work?

Imagine if it did!

  • droughts would vanish
  • floods would not happen
  • bush fires would not wreak havoc on creation
  • wars would disappear
  • peace would break out everywhere
  • hatred, fear and xenophobia would vanish
  • the Queen would live for ever
  • all illness would disappear
  • cancer would not steal our loved ones from our arms
  • we would have the politicians we need rather than the ones we deserve
  • and every lapsed grandchild would come back to the faith

If prayer worked in the ways we pretend that we expect it to work, then the Cathedral would be packed every Sunday. And probably every day during the week as well! People would be banging on our doors and flooding our email account, asking us to teach them how to pray.

However, prayer is not a formula; it is an attitude.

God is not enmeshed in our transactions, and she is not interested in cutting a special deal for us! No matter what we promise to do afterwards if God would just do this little thing for us … right now!

BTW, we cannot escape from this moral challenge by invoking, “God knows best” when our prayers are not answered.

If God actually knows best, then why do so many bad things happen all the time?

And what kind of God are people imagining when they even speak about God in such terms?

Looking at this from another angle: God’s perspective

We often think about prayer from our human perspective:

  • we are asking for things that we cannot achieve by ourselves
  • in our better moments, prayer is attentive appreciation for life
  • for advanced souls, prayer is simply choosing to be in the presence of the sacred

But have we ever thought about prayer from God’s perspective?

  • can we imagine God praying for something?
  • Jesus could and I do
  • for Jesus, God’s prayer is called the commonwealth of God
  • it is expressed in the creation of our amazing cosmos in all its diversity

God has a dream (a prayer, a hope).

Like our own prayers, God’s prayer also seems mostly to go unfulfilled

But do we imagine that God ever stops praying? Indeed, in the NT we are asked to imagine Jesus praying for us without ever taking a break!

So, prayer is not really about outcomes but about inputs.

So we choose prayer

We choose to pray.

We do that not because it is a get-out-of-jail card. Rather, we pray because that engages us in the reality about which we are praying.

If we pray about the poor, we find that we start to care about them. Or perhaps we do already care about them and that is why we pray. Perhaps it is a circle with care growing deeper as we pray more, and those prayers combined with compassion generating action to make a difference … then more prayer, more compassion, more action … more prayer …

You can repeat that paragraph with peace, refugees, climate change, or COVID-19 … in place of “the poor.” 

But never forget that it is the poor who always suffer most, as we are seeing repeatedly in Western Sydney these past few weeks.

It is the poor who are central to God’s own prayers, and it is no surprise that they were right at the centre of the ministry of Jesus.

There is no situation which is not improved by prayer when those prayers draw us into compassionate solidarity with those for whom we pray and compel us into action to set the world aright so that God’s prayers can be answered. By us!

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Religion as wisdom quest

Dormition of our Lady
Christ Church Cathedral, Grafton
15 August 2021

[ video ]

Mary, Mother of the Lord

Our liturgical headline this Sunday is the feast day to commemorate the death of Mary, mother of our Lord.

For Christians in the East, this the feast of the Falling Asleep of the Virgin, the Dormition. For Roman Christians in the West, it is the Feast of the Assumption. For Australian Anglicans it is the last of a series of six Marian festivals which retain “red letter” status in our calendar:

Like all the other Marian feasts, this festival is a mix of fact and pious imagination.

The factual element is simply that Mary surely died at some stage during the first century. It is actually remarkable that she was still alive around the time of Easter, since peasant women rarely lived into middle age or beyond. We can presume she died within a decade or so of Easter.

The rest is pious imagination from much later times, reflecting devotion to Mary as the ever-Virgin Mother of God (Theotokos in Greek).

Truth to tell we know almost nothing about Mary, and we know even less about her personality, her emotions or her personal religion. That, of course, has not prevented the hagiographers from providing intimate details of her life and inner disposition.

The ancient Christians—and many modern believers—like to imagine Mary as perfect in every way, as befits (they imagine) the mother of our Lord.

Solomon

In the first reading, which comes from the regular lections for this Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost, we have a very different character: Solomon, the fabled ruler of Jerusalem.

Here too the character is mostly sketched by pious imagination. There is very little history, if any, in the way that the Bible describes Solomon. 

However, Solomon could hardly be more different from Mary of Nazareth, mother of the Lord.

To take one simple point of difference: Mary is widely believed to have been a virgin when Jesus was conceived and to have remained a virgin throughout her whole life. Solomon, on the other hand, famously had 700 wives (all of them princesses) and 300 concubines (1 Kings 11:3).

Despite that remarkable conjugal achievement, as the Bible tells the tale, Solomon was the wisest man who ever lived. 

Yet the same Bible describes his reign as a failure and his legacy as civil war.

Truth beyond factuality

Neither character’s story is based in history.

These tales are the stuff of legend, and they are spun by powerful men who despised and feared the feminine. They seem mostly to be repeated and defended today by men with those same mindsets.

Yet the point of these pious fictions is not what they pretend to tell us about either Mary or Solomon.

The point of these stories is that they invite us to imagine what constitutes a good life.

Today we reflect on the death of a peasant woman from a remote Galilean village, and the career of a powerful king who collected women as trophies the way some people collect sports cars or race horses.

So what is the good life?

And what part does religion play in us attaining the good life?

Is the Cathedral offering medication for anxiety, or wisdom for life?

Are we selling fire insurance for the next life, or making meaning out of this life here and now?

Are we pretending to have the answers for everyone’s questions, or are we seeking to form a spiritual community which follows a path that allows us to live with the questions and not need to have all the answers?

In the story of Mary, the good life is to SAY YES to God.

In the story of Solomon, the good life is to SEEK WISDOM not power.

As we come to the Table of Jesus this morning, I am seeking wisdom for life. 

How about you?

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Antipas wants to meet Jesus

Seventh Sunday after Pentecost (Year B)
Christ Church Cathedral, Grafton
12 July 2021

Jesus at the court of Herod Antipas

[ video ]

This week we have another biblical curve ball served up the lectionary committee. Thanks, guys!

In both the first reading from 2 Samuel 6 and the Gospel we have rich and powerful men behaving badly. Like footballers. Like politicians. Like rich and powerful blokes.

The Gospel passage starts innocently enough: Antipas wants to meet Jesus. 

Who didn’t; and who doesn’t?

But then Mark gets into the gossip. We all love gossip.

Matthew (to his credit) cleans it up a bit, while Luke simply omits that whole scene from his Gospel.

It seems to me that Herodias was not the only person dancing. There was also a weird kind of threesome involving Antipas, John and Jesus.

Let’s review the dance cards.

Antipas

Herod Antipas if you don’t mind. Better still, just call me, Herod!

Antipas was one of three surviving sons of Herod the Great. In the competition over succession following the death of Herod I, Antipas got second prize. His brother Archelaus was given a half-share of their father’s kingdom, while Antipas and their half-brother Philip each received one quarter. Hence the title, Tetrarch (ruler of a fourth).

Antipas spent much of his 40+ years as a ruler trying to secure the Roman appointment as “King of the Jews,” but ended up in exile after his nephew—Herod Agrippa I—accused him of planning a rebellion and snatched the prized title for himself. 

The territory assigned to Antipas was in two pieces: a southern region (Peraea) on the eastern banks of the Jordan River, plus Galilee in the north.

Antipas was obsessed with royal power and ended up losing everything. He is a tragic figure.

John

John was a Jewish prophet who was active in the southern area controlled by Antipas.

From the perspective of Antipas, John was a troublemaker and a potential rebel. John was stirring up opposition to Antipas on the basis of him divorcing his first wife, a Nabataean princess, and marrying Herodias, his sister-in-law.

Actually, Antipas had bigger problems than John since his former father-in-law was less than impressed and invaded Antipas’s territory. The Roman Legate in Syria did eventually intervene to rescue Antipas and compelled Aretas to withdraw, but he also seemed hostile towards Antipas and delayed intervening until after Antipas had suffered serious losses.

John’s public criticism was not helping Antipas get over the public humiliation.

Worse still, John was telling everyone who would listen that God was about to send the Messiah and establish a new kingdom that would reflect the covenant values of God.

Just as his father had wished to do before him with the visting Magi, Antipas detained the troublesome prophet and eventually had him executed. The murder is historical fact, but the events of Mark 6 seem to be legend.

Antipas would be amazed to think people are still talking about John and Jesus after 2,000 years, while hardly anyone has heard of him!

Jesus

When John was arrested by Antipas that seems to have been the trigger for Jesus to begin his activity in the northern region of Antipas’ micro-kingdom (see Matthew 4:12-17):

Now when Jesus heard that John had been arrested, he withdrew to Galilee. He left Nazareth and made his home in Capernaum by the sea, in the territory of Zebulun and Naphtali … From that time Jesus began to proclaim, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven has come near.” [Matthew 4:12–13, 17]

Jesus was a protégé of John, and he steps into the gap caused by the arrest of John. From his own prison cell, John sent disciples to ask Jesus whether he was “the one who is to come”:

When John heard in prison what the Messiah was doing, he sent word by his disciples and said to him, “Are you the one who is to come, or are we to wait for another?” [Matthew 11:2–3]

Jesus based himself at Capernaum, which was about halfway between the new city Antipas had founded at Tiberias and the “safe zone” in the NE region of Palestine ruled by Philip the Tetrarch, Antipas’ step-brother and bitter rival for the throne.

Several of the disciples of Jesus came from Bethsaida inside the territory of Philip, and according to Matthew the parents of Jesus came from the southern region originally allocated to Archelaus. The circle of Jesus had no reason to support Antipas, and all the more so after he arrests and then murders John.

Antipas hears rumors about a John 2.0, a guy called “Jesus” (Joshua in Hebrew). Antipas wonders whether John has been raised from the dead. He wants to meet Jesus.

Jesus was also talking about imperial power, and speaks incessantly of the reign/empire of God (basileia tou theou) which was not only coming very soon but was already here!

Indeed, Jesus tells people to act as if the reign of God is already here.

That means, of course, acting as if Herod Antipas is no longer the Tetrarch and will never become king.

Antipas meets Jesus

In the Gospel of Luke, there is one scene where Antipas finally gets to meet Jesus. Like Jesus, Antipas is in Jerusalem for Passover when Jesus is arrested by the Temple authorities and handed over to the Roman procurator, Pontius Pilate. When Pilate hears that Jesus is from Galilee he passes the problem of what to do with Jesus across to Antipas:

When Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean. And when he learned that he was under Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him off to Herod, who was himself in Jerusalem at that time. When Herod saw Jesus, he was very glad, for he had been wanting to see him for a long time, because he had heard about him and was hoping to see him perform some sign. He questioned him at some length, but Jesus gave him no answer. The chief priests and the scribes stood by, vehemently accusing him. Even Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him; then he put an elegant robe on him, and sent him back to Pilate. That same day Herod and Pilate became friends with each other; before this they had been enemies. [Luke 23:6–12]

This episode, of course, is the scene in Jesus Christ Superstar when Herod invites Jesus to perform a miracle, or maybe just walk across his swimming pool!

Jesus, I am overjoyed 
You’ve been getting quite a name 
All around the place. 

Healing cripples 
Raising from the dead. 
And now I understand 
You’re God … 
At least that’s what You’ve said. 

So You are the Christ 
You’re the great Jesus Christ. 
Prove to me that you’re divine 
Change my water into wine. 

That’s all you need do 
And I’ll know it’s all true. 
C’mon King of the Jews. 

Jesus, you just won’t believe  
The hit you’ve made around here. 
You are all we talk about 
The wonder of the year! 

Oh, what a pity  
If it’s all a lie …
Still I’m sure that you can rock 
The cynics if you try. 

So if you are the Christ 
You’re the great Jesus Christ 
Prove to me that 
You’re no fool 
Walk across my swimming pool. 

If You do that for me 
Then I’ll let you go free. 
C’mon, King of the Jews!

I only ask things I’d ask any superstar. 
What is it that you have got 
That puts You where You are? 

I am waiting, yes, I’m a captive fan 
I’m dying to be shown 
That You are not just any man. 

So if you are the Christ 
Yes, the great Jesus Christ 
Feed my household with this bread 

You can do it on your head. 
Or has something gone wrong? 
Why do You take so long? 
Come on, King of the Jews! 

Hey, aren’t you scared of me, Christ? 
Mr. Wonderful Christ …
You’re a joke, You’re not the Lord! 
You are nothing but a fraud! 

Take Him away 
He’s got nothing to say 
Get out, You King of the … get out 
Get out, You King of the Jews
Get out, You King of the Jews 
Get out of my life!

Antipas wanted to meet Jesus.

As Luke tells the story there is no meeting of minds. Their ideas of power are light years apart. Antipas wants to control others and enjoy power for himself.

Jesus sees power as loving service, tender care, liberating the prisoners, healing the sick. When he replied to the messengers from John, Jesus said: 

Jesus answered them, “Go and tell John what you hear and see: the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the poor have good news brought to them. And blessed is anyone who takes no offense at me.” [Matthew 11:4–6]

So Antipas got to meet Jesus. 

Sadly, Antipas had eyes but could not see, and ears but could not hear.

Antipas and Pilate were reconciled after years of rivalry. They saw the world the same way.

As we meet Jesus at the Table this morning, he invites us to see the world differently and live as if the rich and powerful were not in charge. Dare we do that?

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When the light comes

Festival of the Coming of the Light
Christ Church Cathedral, Grafton
4 July 2021

[ video ]

Around the country today, Anglicans are joining the celebrations to mark 150 years since the first contact between Christianity and the people of the Torres Strait Islands.

Those celebrations enrich our observance of NAIDOC Week 2021.

Rather than detract from the NAIDOC observances, these celebrations of 150 years since the Coming of the Light focus our attention on one specific example of the encounter between the Indigenous peoples of this ancient land and those who came from other places.

Today we zoom up close to hear and reflect upon one of many stories from the past 200+ years. That story is unique but it also part of the rich tapestry of our now shared journey as one nation, and it offers us some clues for future action.

July 1871

People have been living on the islands of the strait between the lands we now call Australia and Papua since before the time of Abraham. I mention that simply to help us put this unique culture alongside the spiritual timelines of our own sacred stories.

That 2,500 years of continuous presence is one small part of the 60,000+ year-long human story in this ancient land, but it is important to appreciate the deep history of the Islanders at the top end.

The events we commemorate today—and which are reenacted every year in the Islands—occurred late afternoon on Saturday, 1 July 1871. I shall read from an account distributed by ABM:

In 1871, Revd Samuel McFarlane and Revd Archibald Murray of the London Missionary Society, together with eight New Caledonian mission teachers, arrived off the coast of Erub, or Darnley Island, in the far eastern Torres Strait. Their ship, the ‘Surprise’, anchored off Kemus Beach and lowered its boat for MacFarlane and others to go ashore. From a small hill, a warrior called Dabad was watching. He called his men to follow him and made his way down to the water’s edge. McFarlane waded ashore over the volcanic rock pools. He dropped to his knees on the beach before the fearsome looking islanders—the Erubians. McFarlane grasped his Bible in both hands and thrust it towards Dabad. (McFarlane wrote later: “Never did men feel more than we did then their absolute dependence on Divine Help,”). Then something remarkable happened: Dabad stayed his spear and accepted the book which he could not read but which would bring new Light, to all these warring islands This was the new era for the islands of the Torres Strait—which would be known as the Coming of the Light. 

In the words of Aunty Rose Elu (2021 Queensland Senior Australian of the Year):

The chiefs used a word which meant ‘no more bloodshed’ we will not kill these people; they are bringing something—something we need to learn. What is it? We will get them to tell us … one of the things that happened then was that the warfare stopped.

Another Islander, Fr Elemo Tapim, whose words are recorded in the paper “Coming of the Light: Spirituality in Diaspora,” puts it this way:

For us the celebration of the Coming of the Light is just like celebrating Christmas day. On Christmas day God came to us in the form of a baby and on July 1 God came to the Torres Strait in the form of a book

When the Light comes

As we reflect on 150 years since that pivotal encounter, various insights come to mind:

As the current Torres Strait Islanders say, “God was on both sides of the beach” on that day back in 1871. God was already present with the people in the Torres Strait, and yet in another sense God was also present in a special way in the book which told the story of Jesus, and the story of God among the Jewish people before that.

That may well be a mindset we need to embrace as we seek to engage with our neighbours and families. God is already present in their lives, in their culture and in their history. They may not know much about Jesus or the Bible, but God is not absent from their lives, Our task is to connect and expand, not to eradicate and replace.

Then and now the Christian community in the Torres Strait is an indigenous church. This is a precious gift to the national Anglican Church of Australia. We have within our family an authentic Christian Church whose cultural DNA is not the high culture of Victorian England. Most of those who landed on Erub Island that Saturday in 1871 were Melanesian Christians, who shared so much of the broader culture and colonial experience of the people with whom they were sharing their faith. In the past year another group of Melanesian Brothers has arrived on Thursday Island to continue and to rejuvenate the legacy of those first missionaries.

Again, I am quoting from material on the ABM website:

The Brothers aim to live the Gospel in a direct and simple way, following Christ’s example of prayer, mission and service. They live alongside the people they are serving, respecting their traditions and customs. The Brothers follow a daily cycle of prayer and daily Eucharist and they take vows of poverty, celibacy and obedience with many serving between 7 and 20 years. Some take life vows. They not only offer spiritual teaching but also practical assistance. They plant, harvest, fish, build, eat and share with everyone in their care. 

A mission to us by those we once imagined ourselves to be teaching, is now on the cards. How does the light come to us from the Torres Strait? Let me offer one example.

Most of us will recognize the name, Eddie Mabo. Eddie was born on Mer Island in the Torres Strait and was a traditional custodian of his ancestral lands. In his campaign for recognition of his traditional land rights, Mabo shone the light of Christ on the legal lie of terra nullius on which we had built a nation and created our “common-wealth.” With the coming of the light, we have new opportunities for reconciliation and justice for all the people who call Australia home.

What is required of us?

Around the same time that the islands in the Torres Strait were being settled, the Prophet Micah spoke to the people of Jerusalem:

He has told you, O mortal, what is good; and what does the LORD require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God? [Micah 6:8]

Notice the order of the three things which God requires of us, according to Micah:

First, do justice …
Then, love mercy …
Finally, walk humbly with our God …

We cannot get to stage three without first engaging with steps one and two.

Jesus reaffirms this in the Beatitudes:

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 
Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted. 
Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. 
Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for justice,† for they will be filled. 
Blessed are the merciful, for they will receive mercy. 
Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. 
Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God. 
Blessed are those who are persecuted for the sake of justice,† for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
[Matthew 5:3–10] 

† I am translating dikaiosunē as “justice” rather than “righteousness” to convey the primary meaning of the Greek term.

In the Uluru Statement from the Heart (which has been printed in today’s service book), we can discern three kinds of things which the wider community was being asked to do. These were primarily directed to the Government, which has conspicuously failed to act. Perhaps as a church we can lead where the government fails, and they can catch up when they see the light.

The first thing was listen. This was expressed in terms of a voice to the parliament, but we also need a voice to the church. We can choose to remember, and cease choosing to forget. This starts here. It is very local. I refer you to the information printed in the service book immediately after the Uluru Statement from Heart, about local actions we are taking as a Cathedral to listen and remember. We might describe this as “letting the light come …”

Then we need to tell the truth. We need to speak plainly about the violence by which the land was taken from the Indigenous peoples, their women raped and their children stolen. This will be painful and hard. But we can do no less. With the coming of the light, the shameless acts done in the darkness of the past will be exposed. Other steps will be less painful, such as using the names given to this country by the First Nations, rather than imposing names from the British Isles, or—in the case of our town—the name of an English duke and sometime Prime Minister. Jadalmany instead of Grafton, perhaps?

Beyond listening and truth-telling, there will be a need for reconciliation as we act together to create a better shared future. Then we shall indeed find ourselves in a “bran neu dae” as our Reverend Yaegl Elder, Lenore Parker, expressed so beautifully at the end of her prayer which you can find on page 218 in A Prayer Book for Australia:

God of holy dreaming, Great Creator Spirit,
from the dawn of creation you have given your children
the good things of Mother Earth.

You spoke and the gum tree grew.

In the vast desert and dense forest,
and in cities at the water’s edge,
creation sings your praise.

Your presence endures 
as the rock at the heart of our Land.

When Jesus hung on the tree
you heard the cries of all your people
and became one with your wounded ones:
the convicts, the hunted, and the dispossessed.

The sunrise of your Son coloured the earth anew,
and bathed it in glorious hope.

In Jesus we have been reconciled to you,
to each other and to your whole creation.

Lead us on, Great Spirit,
as we gather from the four corners of the earth;
enable us to walk together in trust
from the hurt and shame of the past
into the full day which has dawned in Jesus Christ. Amen.

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In the eye of the beholder

Christ Church Cathedral, Grafton
Third Sunday after Pentecost
13 June 2021

[ video ]

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emberiza_calandra_southeast_Turkey.jpg

We are told that beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

Actually many different forms of value very much depend on the observer: what seems useful, pleasing and attractive will vary between different people, across time and in different cultures.

All three of our readings today have at least one common thread which concerns how we see things.

Last week the religion experts from Jerusalem were warned about the risk that they would not be able to see God at work in their midst because they mistook the Spirit of God doing something new as the work of the Devil.

This week we build on that theme, and reflect on how we assign (or withhold) value when we are observing what is happening around.

Samuel goes to Bethlehem

The prophet Samuel (who was himself overlooked by an elderly priest when he was just a child) sets out for Bethlehem on an undercover mission that puts his own life at risk.

He is going to look for someone else to replace Saul as king over the tribes of Israel, and if King Saul discovers what sneaky tricks Samuel is up to then his own life will certainly be in peril.

This is no Christmas story, even though it is in Bethlehem.

It seems that Samuel has done some research before his trip, because he goes looking for one particular man (Jesse) from among whose children Samuel expects to find the next king.

As this kind of story often requires, Jesse has lots of children, including eight sons.

The proud father presents his seven older sons, and Samuel is very impressed. But a little voice in his head keeps saying saying NO to each of these seven impressive young men. When Samuel eventually asks whether Jesse has any other sons, the old farmer admits that there is one not present despite all of the sons having been invited to attend the event.

He’s just a kid and he is busy looking after the sheep.

Young Shepherd

We know how this story is going to end. The youngest boy is called into the party, and to everyone’s amazement he is identified as the person chosen by God to replace Saul as king.

This is a great example of a story which is true on so many levels even if it did not actually happen.

Seeing Jesus differently

Towards the end of our second reading, Saint Paul mentions—almost in passing—that while he might once have looked at Jesus from a human point of view, he does not do that any longer.

It is certainly possible to look at Jesus from a human point of view.

Lots of people do that, and people who will never be Christians can still find great meaning for them in paying attention to Jesus.

But Paul had learned to look at Jesus from another perspective; to appreciate Jesus as the risen Lord, the One who is always present with us through his Spirit, and the One through whom God was choosing to make everything new. He goes on to say:

So if anyone is in Christ, there is a new creation: everything old has passed away; see, everything has become new! All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation; that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting the message of reconciliation to us. So we are ambassadors for Christ, since God is making his appeal through us; we entreat you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God.

2 Cor 5:17–20

How we look at Jesus is our choice, but if we look at him in that way then everything changes.

As parents and godparents, how do we want Sawyer to see Jesus?

The mustard seed

Our gospel passage offered another example where how we look determines what we see.

The parable of the mustard seed is one of the things we can be pretty certain Jesus actually said, although in the several versions of this little parable we can already see people developing the story in different ways.

For most people this is a story about something that starts out really small (a mustard seed) and grows into a huge tree. “From little things big things grow,” comes to mind!

If you look at the parable that way you will find yourself among a large crowd of people, but Jesus may not be there as that was almost certainly not what he was seeking to express.

More likely Jesus had one of the following in mind and perhaps all three of them:

smallness – the mustard seed is indeed small, but so is the shrub that grows from the seeds and it is never such a large plant that it competes with the ancient trees

inclusive – the mustard bushes become a haven for birds and other small creatures, who the farmer would much prefer to be somewhere else

pervasive – these plants are pervasive and will take over the whole field if left unchecked because once they got a established in a small corner of there field they keep on spreading …

How do you see God’s active presence among us? asks Jesus.

Do we imagine God as big and powerful, or as small but pervasive, gathering up the marginal people to form communities of hope in a world that runs on fear?

And how do we see Jesus, and how might we imagine a church that starts again from just a few small seeds? Are we hoping to become once more a large and powerful institution, or shall we be content to be small, inclusive and pervasive?

And how shall we teach Sawyer to look at things?

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